The next day, more torpedo aircraft attacked and sank Chicago. Rocklea Munitions Hostel. The older destroyer Mutsuki was so badly damaged that it had to be scuttled. So this should be a good enough reason to leave everyone the fuck alone from now on? The rest of Tanaka's destroyers escaped without damage, but failed to deliver any of the provisions to Guadalcanal. The Japanese made two attempts to continue their strategic initiative, and offensively extend their outer defensive perimeter in the south and central Pacific to where they could threaten Australia and Hawaii or the U. Brocks Creek Detention Barracks.
Camp Carina. Camp Cable Logan Village. Camp Chelmer Brisbane. Camp Chermside Brisbane. Camp Columbia Brisbane. Camp Coopers Plains Brisbane. Camp Coot-tha J. Slaughter Falls, Brisbane. Camp Doomben Brisbane. Camp Freeman Inala, Brisbane. Camp Muckley Archerfield, Brisbane. Camp Oxley.
Camp Perry Park. Camp Redbank. Camp Strathpine Brisbane. Camp Tasman Indooroopilly, Brisbane. Camp Victoria Park Herston, Brisbane. Camp Whinstanes Brisbane. Camp Yeronga Yeronga Park, Brisbane. Chemical Office Perry House, Brisbane. Chemical Warfare School Windermere Rd.
Toronto Brothels LocationsChinese Camp at Apollo Road, Bulimba associated with barge building.
Cold Storage, Hamilton Wharf U. Colmslie Area during WW2. Colmslie Fairmile Base Slipway and Jetty. Naval Transmitting Station in the same area. Colmslie Watercraft Workshop Park. Coopers Plains Ordnance Service Center. Darra Ordnance Ammunition Depot.
Doctor Carver Club U. EM Rest Camp U. Navy , Seabrae Hotel, Redcliffe. Ekibin Hospital Brisbane. Fleet Hospital No. Navy Camp Hill, Brisbane. Fleming Road Anti-aircraft gun Hemmant, Brisbane. Furnace, Banya Street, Bulimba. Gona Barracks, Kelvin Grove.
Grovely Detention Barracks. Hamilton Wharves Hamilton, Brisbane. Hamilton Flying Boat Base. Headquarters, Com Seventh Fleet U. Navy AMP Building. Headquarters, Navy Base, Brisbane U. Headquarters Brisbane Fortress Command St. Laurence's College. Holland Park Hospital. Kalinga Staging Camp Brisbane. MacArthur and his senior staff. Marchant Park, used as a large truck park Chermside, Brisbane.
Maintenance Office Ships Navy U. Navy possibly at New Farm. Meeandah Army Camp. Mobile 9 MOB 9 U. Mobile Explosives Investigation Unit No 1. Navy Brisbane. Naval Officers Club U. Navy Oxlade Drive, New Farm. Newstead Wharf - Shipping U. Newstead House U. Army Photo Unit. Nudgee Warehouses. Officers' Rest Area U. Navy , Surfers Paradise. Ordnance Enlistment Depot St.
Paul's Terrace. Rocklea Engine Test Cells. Rocklea Munitions Factory. Rocklea Munitions Hostel. School of Military Intelligence Redcliffe. Shore Patrol U. Navy Brisbane CBD. Staff Barracks for No. Stafford Munitions Store and Transport Depot. Stafford Radar Station. Stafford Radio Station and Camp. Storage Sheds, St.
Tennyson, 1 Australian Personnel Staging Camp. Toorbul Naval Landing Craft Depot. Torpedo Overhaul Shop Light St. Virginia Ordnance Depot. Wacol camp for Indonesian troops where Wacol prison is located, Brisbane. Warehouses of the 81st Air Depot Group 22 off. White's Hill Observation Point.
Whites Hill Signals Switchboard room. Allied Works Council Workshop Camooweal. Anti-aircraft training camp near Beaudesert. Athol's Inn Townsville. Base Section 3 Rest Area Coolangatta. Bitumen Emulsion Plant Oonoonba, Townsville. Bitumen Emulsion Plant Charters Towers.
Bitumen Emulsion Plant Mount Isa. Bowen Chemical Research Unit. Brampton Island Army Camp. Brookhill Ammunition Magazine near Townsville. Brothel established by Americans in a house at Stuart, Townsville. Belgian Gardens, Townsville. Cairns Z Experimental Station Z. Calvert Ordnance Depot near Rosewood. Camp at Alexandra Headland, Sunshine Coast. Camp Bluewater near Townsville.
Camp Caves The Caves near Rockhampton. Camp Cluden Townsville. Camp Rockhampton. Camp Tabragalba Beaudesert. Canungra L. Training Centre Jungle Warfare. Charleville Radio Transmitter Site. Cluden Motor Park Cluden, Townsville. Combined Defence Headquarters Sturt St.
Defence Roads in Queensland. Navy , Newton Park, Toowoomba. Everyman's Hut Stanley Street, Townsville. Field Battle Practice Range Warwick. Garbutt Stockade near Blakey's Lagoon. Helton Hall Mount Louisa, Townsville. Igloo at Bundock St. Local Defence Headquarters Townsville. Mackay Naval Landing Craft Depot. Mackay Rest Leave Area. Military Camps on Castle Hill Townsville. Military Camps Yandina area.
Miowera Army Camp. Mount Isa Base Supply Depot. Mount Isa Underground Hospital. Newtown Park, Toowoomba. Queens Park US Stockade. Rocky Creek area. On 14 September Kawaguchi led the survivors of his shattered brigade on a five-day march west to the Matanikau Valley to join with Oka's unit. The results of the battle now began to have a telling strategic impact on Japanese operations in other areas of the Pacific.
Hyakutake prepared to send more troops to Guadalcanal for another attempt to recapture Henderson Field. As the Japanese regrouped west of the Matanikau, the U. On 18 September an Allied naval convoy delivered 4, men from the 3rd Provisional Marine Brigade the 7th Marine Regiment plus a battalion from the 11th Marine Regiment and some additional support units , vehicles, tents, aviation fuel, ammunition, rations, and engineering equipment to Guadalcanal.
These crucial reinforcements allowed Vandegrift, beginning on 19 September, to establish an unbroken line of defense around the Lunga perimeter. One of these was the recently promoted Colonel Merritt Edson who was placed in command of the 5th Marine Regiment. A lull occurred in the air war over Guadalcanal, with no Japanese air raids occurring between 14 and 27 September due to bad weather, during which both sides reinforced their respective air units.
The Japanese delivered 85 fighters and bombers to their air units at Rabaul while the U. On 20 September the Japanese counted total aircraft at Rabaul while the Allies tallied 71 aircraft at Henderson Field. Navy and Marine fighters from Henderson Field. The Japanese immediately began to prepare for their next attempt to recapture Henderson Field.
By now, though, the battalion had joined Oka's forces near the Matanikau. The Japanese planned to transport a total of 17, troops from these two divisions to Guadalcanal to take part in the next major attack on the Lunga Perimeter set for 20 October Vandegrift and his staff were aware that Kawaguchi's troops had retreated to the area west of the Matanikau and that numerous groups of Japanese stragglers were scattered throughout the area between the Lunga Perimeter and the Matanikau River.
Vandegrift, therefore, decided to conduct another series of small unit operations around the Matanikau Valley. The purpose of these operations was to mop up the scattered groups of Japanese troops east of the Matanikau and to keep the main body of Japanese soldiers off-balance to prevent them from consolidating their positions so close to the main Marine defenses at Lunga Point.
The first U. Marine operation conducted between 23 and 27 September by elements of three U. Marine battalions, an attack on Japanese forces west of the Matanikau, was repulsed by Kawaguchi's troops under Akinosuke Oka's local command. Coast Guard personnel. In the second action between 6 and 9 October a larger force of Marines successfully crossed the Matanikau River, attacked newly landed Japanese forces from the 2nd Infantry Division under the command of generals Masao Maruyama and Yumio Nasu , and inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese 4th Infantry Regiment.
The second action forced the Japanese to retreat from their positions east of the Matanikau and hindered Japanese preparations for their planned major offensive on the U. Lunga defenses. Between 9 and 11 October the U. The raids killed 35 Japanese at a cost of 17 Marines and three U.
Navy personnel killed. Throughout the last week of September and the first week of October, Tokyo Express runs delivered troops from the Japanese 2nd Infantry Division to Guadalcanal. The Japanese Navy promised to support the Army's planned offensive not only by delivering the necessary troops, equipment, and supplies to the island, but by stepping up air attacks on Henderson Field and sending warships to bombard the airfield.
In the meantime, Millard F. Marine forces on Guadalcanal needed to be reinforced immediately if the Allies were to successfully defend the island from the next, expected Japanese offensive. Thus, on 8 October, the 2, men of the th Infantry Regiment from the U. Army's Americal Division boarded ships at New Caledonia for the trip to Guadalcanal with a projected arrival date of 13 October.
To protect the transports carrying the th to Guadalcanal, Ghormley ordered Task Force 64, consisting of four cruisers and five destroyers under U. Rear Admiral Norman Scott , to intercept and combat any Japanese ships that approached Guadalcanal and threatened the arrival of the transport convoy. Mikawa's 8th Fleet staff scheduled a large and important Express run for the night of 11 October.
Two seaplane tenders and six destroyers were to deliver soldiers plus artillery and ammunition to Guadalcanal. Because U. Navy warships had yet to attempt to interdict any Tokyo Express missions to Guadalcanal, the Japanese were not expecting any opposition from Allied naval surface forces that night.
During the exchange of gunfire, one of Scott's destroyers was sunk and one cruiser and another destroyer were heavily damaged. In the meantime, the Japanese supply convoy successfully completed unloading at Guadalcanal and began its return journey without being discovered by Scott's force. The convoy of U. Army troops reached Guadalcanal as scheduled the next day and successfully delivered its cargo and passengers to the island.
Despite the U. On 13 October, a convoy comprising six cargo ships with eight screening destroyers departed the Shortland Islands for Guadalcanal. The convoy carried 4, troops from the 16th and th Infantry Regiments, some naval marines, two batteries of heavy artillery, and one company of tanks.
Many of the shells were fragmentation shells, specifically designed to destroy land targets. The bombardment heavily damaged both runways, burned almost all of the available aviation fuel, destroyed 48 of the CAF's 90 aircraft, and killed 41 men, including six CAF pilots.
The battleship force immediately returned to Truk. In spite of the heavy damage, Henderson personnel were able to restore one of the runways to an operational condition within a few hours. Army and Marine transport aircraft began to shuttle aviation gasoline from Espiritu Santo to Guadalcanal. Now aware of the approach of the large Japanese reinforcement convoy, the U. Using fuel drained from destroyed aircraft and from a cache in the nearby jungle, the CAF attacked the convoy twice on the 14th, but caused no damage.
The Japanese convoy reached Tassafaronga on Guadalcanal at midnight on 14 October and began unloading. Throughout the day of 15 October, a string of CAF aircraft from Henderson bombed and strafed the unloading convoy, destroying three of the cargo ships. The remainder of the convoy departed that night, having unloaded all of the troops and about two-thirds of the supplies and equipment.
Several Japanese heavy cruisers also bombarded Henderson on the nights of 14 and 15 October, destroying a few additional CAF aircraft, but failing to cause significant further damage to the airfield. Between 1 and 17 October, the Japanese delivered 15, troops to Guadalcanal, giving Hyakutake 20, total troops to employ for his planned offensive.
Because of the loss of their positions on the east side of the Matanikau, the Japanese decided that an attack on the U. Therefore, Hyakutake decided that the main thrust of his planned attack would be from south of Henderson Field. His 2nd Division augmented by troops from the 38th Division , under Lieutenant General Masao Maruyama and comprising 7, soldiers in three infantry regiments of three battalions each was ordered to march through the jungle and attack the American defenses from the south near the east bank of the Lunga River.
To distract the Americans from the planned attack from the south, Hyakutake's heavy artillery plus five battalions of infantry about 2, men under Major General Tadashi Sumiyoshi were to attack the American defenses from the west along the coastal corridor. The Japanese estimated that there were 10, American troops on the island, when in fact there were about 23, On 12 October, a company of Japanese engineers began to break a trail, called the "Maruyama Road", from the Matanikau towards the southern portion of the U.
Lunga perimeter. Between 16 and 18 October, the 2nd Division began their march along the Maruyama Road. By 23 October, Maruyama's forces still struggled through the jungle to reach the American lines. That evening, after learning that his forces had yet to reach their attack positions, Hyakutake postponed the attack to The Americans remained unaware of the approach of Maruyama's forces.
Sumiyoshi was informed by Hyakutake's staff of the postponement of the offensive to 24 October, but was unable to contact his troops to inform them of the delay. Thus, at dusk on 23 October, two battalions of the 4th Infantry Regiment and the nine tanks of the 1st Independent Tank Company launched attacks on the U.
Marine defenses at the mouth of the Matanikau. Marine artillery, cannon, and small arms fire repulsed the attacks, destroying all the tanks and killing many of the Japanese soldiers while suffering only light casualties. Finally, late on 24 October Maruyama's forces reached the U. Over two consecutive nights Maruyama's forces conducted numerous frontal assaults on positions defended by troops of the 1st Battalion, 7th Marines under Lieutenant Colonel Chesty Puller and the U.
Marine and Army units armed with rifles, machine guns, mortars, and artillery, including direct canister fire from 37 mm anti-tank guns , "wrought terrible carnage" on the Japanese. More than 1, of Maruyama's troops were killed in the attacks while the Americans lost about 60 killed. Over the same two days American aircraft from Henderson Field defended against attacks by Japanese aircraft and ships, destroying 14 aircraft and sinking a light cruiser.
Further Japanese attacks near the Matanikau on 26 October were also repulsed with heavy losses for the Japanese. As a result, by Leading elements of the 2nd Division reached the 17th Army headquarters area at Kokumbona, west of the Matanikau on 4 November.
Decimated by battle deaths, combat injuries, malnutrition, and tropical diseases, the 2nd Division was incapable of further offensive action and fought as a defensive force along the coast for the rest of the campaign. In total, the Japanese lost 2,—3, troops in the battle while the Americans lost around 80 killed.
At the same time that Hyakutake's troops were attacking the Lunga perimeter, Japanese aircraft carriers and other large warships under the overall direction of Isoroku Yamamoto moved into a position near the southern Solomon Islands. From this location, the Japanese naval forces hoped to engage and decisively defeat any Allied primarily U.
Allied naval carrier forces in the area, now under the overall command of William Halsey, Jr. Nimitz had replaced Ghormley with Admiral Halsey on 18 October after concluding that Ghormley had become too pessimistic and myopic to effectively continue leading Allied forces in the South Pacific area.
The two opposing carrier forces confronted each other on the morning of 26 October, in what became known as the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. After an exchange of carrier air attacks, Allied surface ships were forced to retreat from the battle area with the loss of one carrier sunk Hornet and another Enterprise heavily damaged.
The participating Japanese carrier forces, however, also retired because of high aircraft and aircrew losses and significant damage to two carriers. Although an apparent tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk and damaged, the loss by the Japanese of many irreplaceable, veteran aircrews provided a long-term strategic advantage for the Allies, whose aircrew losses in the battle were relatively low.
The Japanese carriers played no further significant role in the campaign. In order to exploit the victory in the Battle for Henderson Field, Vandegrift sent six Marine battalions, later joined by one U. Army battalion, on an offensive west of the Matanikau. The operation was commanded by Merritt Edson and its goal was to capture Kokumbona, headquarters of the 17th Army, west of Point Cruz.
The 4th Infantry was severely understrength because of battle damage, tropical disease, and malnutrition. The American offensive began on 1 November and, after some difficulty, succeeded in destroying Japanese forces defending the Point Cruz area by 3 November, including rear echelon troops sent to reinforce Nakaguma's battered regiment.
The Americans appeared to be on the verge of breaking through the Japanese defenses and capturing Kokumbona. At this time, however, other American forces discovered and engaged newly landed Japanese troops near Koli Point on the eastern side of the Lunga perimeter.
To counter this new threat, Vandegrift temporarily halted the Matanikau offensive on 4 November. The Americans suffered 71 and the Japanese around killed in the offensive. Having learned of the planned landing, Vandegrift sent a battalion of Marines under Herman H. Hanneken to intercept the Japanese at Koli.
Soon after landing, the Japanese soldiers encountered and drove Hanneken's battalion back towards the Lunga perimeter. In response, Vandegrift ordered Puller's Marine battalion plus two of the th infantry battalions, along with Hanneken's battalion, to move towards Koli Point to attack the Japanese forces there.
A gap existed by way of a swampy creek in the southern side of the American lines. On 12 November, the Americans completely overran and killed all the remaining Japanese soldiers left in the pocket. The American forces suffered 40 killed and wounded in the operation.
Carlson's raiders, along with troops from the U. Army's th Infantry Regiment , were to provide security for Seabees as they attempted to construct an airfield at that location. Halsey, acting on a recommendation by Turner, had approved the Aola Bay airfield construction effort. The Aola airfield construction effort was later abandoned at the end of November because of unsuitable terrain.
With the rest of the companies from his battalion, which arrived a few days later, Carlson and his troops set off on a day patrol from Aola to the Lunga perimeter. Tokyo Express runs on 5, 7, and 9 November delivered additional troops from the Japanese 38th Infantry Division, including most of the th Infantry Regiment to Guadalcanal.
These fresh troops were quickly emplaced in the Point Cruz and Matanikau area and helped successfully resist further attacks by American forces on 10 and 18 November. The Americans and Japanese remained facing each other along a line just west of Point Cruz for the next six weeks. After the defeat in the Battle for Henderson Field, the IJA planned to try again to retake the airfield in November , but further reinforcements were needed before the operation could proceed.
The IJA requested assistance from Yamamoto to deliver the needed reinforcements to the island and to support the next offensive. Yamamoto provided 11 large transport ships to carry the remaining 7, troops from the 38th Infantry Division, their ammunition, food, and heavy equipment from Rabaul to Guadalcanal. He also provided a warship support force that included two battleships.
The two battleships, Hiei and Kirishima , equipped with special fragmentation shells, were to bombard Henderson Field on the night of 12—13 November and destroy it and the aircraft stationed there in order to allow the slow, heavy transports to reach Guadalcanal and unload safely the next day. In early November, Allied intelligence learned that the Japanese were preparing again to try to retake Henderson Field.
Army infantry battalions, and ammunition and food, commanded by Turner, to Guadalcanal on 11 November. The supply ships were protected by two task groups , commanded by Rear Admirals Daniel J. Callaghan and Norman Scott , and aircraft from Henderson Field. Around In addition to the two battleships, Abe's force included one light cruiser and 11 destroyers.
In the pitch darkness,  the two warship forces intermingled before opening fire at unusually close quarters. Two Japanese destroyers were sunk and another destroyer and the Hiei heavily damaged. Despite his defeat of Callaghan's force, Abe ordered his warships to retire without bombarding Henderson Field.
In the meantime, around The bombardment caused some damage but failed to put the airfield or most of its aircraft out of operation. As Mikawa's force retired towards Rabaul, Tanaka's transport convoy, trusting that Henderson Field was now destroyed or heavily damaged, began its run down the slot towards Guadalcanal. Throughout the day of 14 November, aircraft from Henderson Field and the Enterprise attacked Mikawa's and Tanaka's ships, sinking one heavy cruiser and seven of the transports.
Most of the troops were rescued from the transports by Tanaka's escorting destroyers and returned to the Shortlands. After dark, Tanaka and the remaining four transports continued towards Guadalcanal as Kondo's force approached to bombard Henderson Field. In order to intercept Kondo's force, Halsey, who was low on undamaged ships, detached two battleships, the Washington and South Dakota , and four destroyers from the Enterprise task force.
The U. Lee aboard the Washington , reached Guadalcanal and Savo Island just before midnight on 14 November, shortly before Kondo's bombardment force arrived. Kondo's force consisted of the Kirishima plus two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and nine destroyers. After the two forces made contact, Kondo's force quickly sank three of the U.
The Japanese warships then sighted, opened fire, and damaged the South Dakota. As Kondo's warships concentrated on the South Dakota , the Washington approached the Japanese ships unobserved and opened fire on the Kirishima , smashing into the Japanese battleship repeatedly with both main and secondary battery shells, and causing fatal damage.
After fruitlessly chasing the Washington towards the Russell Islands , Kondo ordered his warships to retire without bombarding Henderson Field. One of Kondo's destroyers was also sunk during the engagement. As Kondo's ships retired, the four Japanese transports beached themselves near Tassafaronga on Guadalcanal at Only 2,—3, of the army troops made it ashore. Because of the failure to deliver most of the troops and supplies, the Japanese were forced to cancel their planned November offensive on Henderson Field making the results of the battle a significant strategic victory for the Allies and marking the beginning of the end of Japanese attempts to retake Henderson Field.
One of Imamura's first priorities upon assuming command was the continuation of the attempts to retake Henderson Field and Guadalcanal. Because the Allied attempt to take Buna was considered a more severe threat to Rabaul, Imamura postponed further major reinforcement efforts to Guadalcanal to concentrate on the situation in New Guinea. The Japanese continued to experience problems in delivering sufficient supplies to sustain their troops on Guadalcanal.
Attempts to use only submarines the last two weeks in November failed to provide sufficient food for Hyakutake's forces. A separate attempt to establish bases in the central Solomons to facilitate barge convoys to Guadalcanal also failed because of destructive Allied air attacks. On 26 November, the 17th Army notified Imamura that it faced a food crisis.
Some front-line units had not been resupplied for six days and even the rear-area troops were on one-third rations. The situation forced the Japanese to return to using destroyers to deliver the necessary supplies. Eighth Fleet personnel devised a plan to help reduce the exposure of destroyers delivering supplies to Guadalcanal. Large oil or gas drums were cleaned and filled with medical supplies and food, with enough air space to provide buoyancy, and strung together with rope.
When the destroyers arrived at Guadalcanal they would make a sharp turn and the drums would be cut loose and a swimmer or boat from shore could pick up the buoyed end of a rope and return it to the beach, where the soldiers could haul in the supplies. Tanaka's unit was centered on eight destroyers, with six destroyers assigned to carry between and drums of supplies apiece.
Rear Admiral Carleton H. Wright , to intercept Tanaka's force off Guadalcanal. Two additional destroyers joined Wright's force en route to Guadalcanal from Espiritu Santo during the day of 30 November. Meanwhile, Wright's warships were approaching through Ironbottom Sound from the opposite direction.
Wright's destroyers detected Tanaka's force on radar and the destroyer commander requested permission to attack with torpedoes. Wright waited four minutes before giving permission, allowing Tanaka's force to escape from an optimum firing setup. All of the American torpedoes missed their targets. At the same time, Wright's cruisers opened fire, quickly hitting and destroying one of the Japanese guard destroyers.
The rest of Tanaka's warships abandoned the supply mission, increased speed, turned, and launched a total of 44 torpedoes in the direction of Wright's cruisers. The Japanese torpedoes hit and sank the U. The rest of Tanaka's destroyers escaped without damage, but failed to deliver any of the provisions to Guadalcanal.
PT boat torpedo. On 12 December, the Japanese Navy proposed that Guadalcanal be abandoned. At the same time, several army staff officers at the Imperial General Headquarters IGH also suggested that further efforts to retake Guadalcanal would be impossible. Upon the delegation's return to Tokyo, Sanada recommended that Guadalcanal be abandoned.
The IGH's top leaders agreed with Sanada's recommendation on 26 December and ordered their staffs to begin drafting plans for a withdrawal from Guadalcanal, establishment of a new defense line in the central Solomons, and a shifting of priorities and resources to the campaign in New Guinea. On 31 December, the Emperor formally endorsed the decision.
The Japanese secretly began to prepare for the evacuation, called Operation Ke , scheduled to begin during the latter part of January By December, the weary 1st Marine Division was withdrawn for recuperation, and over the course of the next month the U. XIV Corps took over operations on the island. This corps consisted of the 2nd Marine Division and the U.
Army's 25th Infantry and 23rd "Americal" Divisions. On 18 December, Allied mainly U. Army forces began attacking Japanese positions on Mount Austen. A strong Japanese fortified position, called the Gifu, stymied the attacks and the Americans were forced to temporarily halt their offensive on 4 January. The Allies renewed the offensive on 10 January, reattacking the Japanese on Mount Austen as well as on two nearby ridges called the Seahorse and the Galloping Horse.
After some difficulty, the Allies captured all three by 23 January. At the same time, U. Marines advanced along the north coast of the island, making significant gains. The Americans lost about killed in the operation while the Japanese suffered around 3, killed, about 12 to 1 in the Americans' favor.
On 14 January, a Tokyo Express run delivered a battalion of troops to act as a rear guard for the Ke evacuation. A staff officer from Rabaul accompanied the troops to notify Hyakutake of the decision to withdraw. At the same time, Japanese warships and aircraft moved into position around the Rabaul and Bougainville areas in preparation to execute the withdrawal operation.
Allied intelligence detected the Japanese movements, but misinterpreted them as preparations for another attempt to retake Henderson Field and Guadalcanal. Patch, wary of what he thought to be an imminent Japanese offensive, committed only a relatively small portion of his troops to continue a slow-moving offensive against Hyakutake's forces. On 29 January, Halsey, acting on the same intelligence, sent a resupply convoy to Guadalcanal screened by a cruiser task force.
Sighting the cruisers, Japanese naval torpedo bombers attacked that same evening and heavily damaged the cruiser Chicago. The next day, more torpedo aircraft attacked and sank Chicago. Halsey ordered the remainder of the task force to return to base and directed the rest of his naval forces to take station in the Coral Sea , south of Guadalcanal, to be ready to counter a Japanese offensive.
In the meantime, the Japanese 17th Army withdrew to the west coast of Guadalcanal while rear guard units checked the American offensive. The Japanese and Americans each lost a destroyer from an air and naval attack related to the evacuation mission. On the nights of 4 and 7 February, Hashimoto and his destroyers evacuated the remaining Japanese forces from Guadalcanal.
Apart from some air attacks, Allied forces, still anticipating a large Japanese offensive, did not attempt to interdict Hashimoto's evacuation runs. In total, the Japanese successfully evacuated 10, men from Guadalcanal. Their last troops left the island on the evening of 7 February, six months to the day from when the U. After the Japanese withdrawal, Guadalcanal and Tulagi were developed into major bases supporting the Allied advance further up the Solomon Islands chain.
Besides Henderson Field, two additional fighter runways were constructed at Lunga Point and a bomber airfield was built at Koli Point. Extensive naval port and logistics facilities were established at Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida. The anchorage around Tulagi became an important advanced base for Allied warships and transport ships supporting the Solomon Islands campaign.
Major ground units were staged through large encampments and barracks on Guadalcanal before deployment further up the Solomons. After Guadalcanal the Japanese were clearly on the defensive in the Pacific. The constant pressure to reinforce Guadalcanal had weakened Japanese efforts in other theaters, contributing to a successful Australian and American counteroffensive in New Guinea which culminated in the capture of the key bases of Buna and Gona in early The Allies had gained a strategic initiative which they never relinquished.
In June, the Allies launched Operation Cartwheel , which, after modification in August , formalized the strategy of isolating Rabaul and cutting its sea lines of communication. The subsequent successful neutralization of Rabaul and the forces centered there facilitated the South West Pacific campaign under General Douglas MacArthur and Central Pacific island-hopping campaign under Admiral Chester Nimitz , with both efforts successfully advancing toward Japan.
The remaining Japanese defenses in the South Pacific area were then either destroyed or bypassed by Allied forces as the war progressed. It strained logistical capabilities of the combatant nations. For the U. A failure to achieve air supremacy forced Japan to rely on reinforcement by barges, destroyers, and submarines, with very uneven results. Early in the campaign, the Americans were hindered by a lack of resources, as they suffered heavy losses in cruisers and carriers, with replacements from ramped-up shipbuilding programs still months away from materializing.
Navy suffered such high personnel losses during the campaign that it refused to publicly release total casualty figures for years. However, as the campaign continued, and the American public became more and more aware of the plight and perceived heroism of the American forces on Guadalcanal, more forces were dispatched to the area. This spelled trouble for Japan as its military-industrial complex was unable to match the output of American industry and manpower.
Thus, as the campaign wore on the Japanese were losing irreplaceable units while the Americans were rapidly replacing and even augmenting their forces. The Guadalcanal campaign was costly to Japan strategically and in material losses and manpower. Roughly 30, personnel, including 25, experienced ground troops, died during the campaign.
As many as three-quarters of the deaths were from non-combat causes such as starvation and various tropical diseases. Japan also lost control of the southern Solomons and the ability to interdict Allied shipping to Australia. Japan's major base at Rabaul was now further directly threatened by Allied air power.
Most importantly, scarce Japanese land, air, and naval forces had disappeared forever into the Guadalcanal jungle and surrounding sea. The Japanese could not replace the aircraft and ships destroyed and sunk in this campaign, as well as their highly trained and veteran crews, especially the naval aircrews, nearly as quickly as the Allies. While the Battle of Midway is viewed as a turning point in the Pacific War, Japan remained on the offensive, as shown by its advances down the Solomon Islands.
Strategic initiative passed to the Allies, as it proved, permanently. The Guadalcanal Campaign ended all Japanese expansion attempts and placed the Allies in a position of clear supremacy. The " Europe first " policy of the United States had initially only allowed for defensive actions against Japanese expansion, in order to focus resources on defeating Germany. However, Admiral King's argument for the Guadalcanal invasion, as well as its successful implementation, convinced President Franklin D.
Roosevelt that the Pacific Theater could be pursued offensively as well. Perhaps as important as the military victory for the Allies was the psychological victory. On a level playing field, the Allies had beaten Japan's best land, air, and naval forces. After Guadalcanal, Allied personnel regarded the Japanese military with much less fear and awe than previously.
In addition, the Allies viewed the eventual outcome of the Pacific War with greatly increased optimism. Guadalcanal is no longer merely a name of an island in Japanese military history. It is the name of the graveyard of the Japanese army. Said Kawabe, "As for the turning point [of the war], when the positive action ceased or even became negative, it was, I feel, at Guadalcanal.
The Guadalcanal Campaign was the subject of a large amount of high-quality reporting. News agencies sent some of their most talented writers, as it was the first major American combat operation of the war. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Guadalcanal , British Solomon Islands.
Guadalcanal Campaign. Austen Naval Savo Is. Solomon Islands campaign. Further information: Battle of Guadalcanal order of battle and Guadalcanal naval order of battle. Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu—Tanambogo. Main article: Battle of Savo Island. Frank Goettge. Battle of the Tenaru. Battle of the Eastern Solomons. Cactus Air Force. Tokyo Express.
Battle of Edson's Ridge. Actions along the Matanikau. Battle of Cape Esperance. Battle for Henderson Field. Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. Matanikau Offensive , Koli Point action , and Carlson's patrol. Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Battle of Tassafaronga. Operation Ke.
See also: Battle of Rennell Island. Tokyo Express no longer has terminus on Guadalcanal. Forces on Guadalcanal. Assisting the Americans in the latter stages of campaign were Fijiian commandos led by officers and non-commissioned officers from the New Zealand Expeditionary Force. Retrieved 9 January Approximately 20, U.
Marines and 40, U. Army troops were deployed on Guadalcanal at different times during the campaign. Figures for other the Allies are not included. Jersey states that 50, Japanese army and navy troops were sent to Guadalcanal and that most of the original naval garrison of 1,—2, men was successfully evacuated in November and December by Tokyo Express warships Jersey, pp.
Marine air units add another to this figure. Total Solomon Islander deaths are unknown. Most of the rest, if not all, of those killed were American. Numbers include personnel killed by all causes including combat, disease, and accidents. Losses include 1, dead ground , 4, dead naval , and dead aircrew. Four U.
An unknown number of other U. Captured Japanese documents revealed that two captured Marine scouts had been tied to trees and then vivisected while still alive and conscious by an army surgeon as a medical demonstration Clemens, p. Ships sunk includes both warships and "large" auxiliaries. Aircraft destroyed includes both combat and operational losses.
Losses include 24,—25, dead ground , 3, dead naval , and 2, dead aircrew. Most of the captured personnel were Korean slave laborers assigned to Japanese naval construction units. Ships sunk includes warships and "large" auxiliaries. Two Views". The Japanese aircraft assigned to Guadalcanal were to come from the 26th Air Flotilla, then located at bases in the Central Pacific Bullard, p.
America Fights Back. Pacific War Historical Society. Retrieved 10 January Because of poor weather conditions, he said the invading fleet escaped detection, and that if the invasion fleet had been spotted a day or two prior to 7 August, the Allied convoy, with its slow moving transports, probably would have been destroyed.
Guadalcanal Echoes , Volume 21, No. The landing force, designated Task Force 62, included six heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, 15 destroyers, 13 transports, six cargo ships, four destroyer transports, and five minesweepers. The IJN personnel included Japanese and Korean construction specialists as well as trained combat troops.
Approximately 80 Japanese personnel escaped to Florida Island, where they were found and killed by Marine patrols over the next two months. Loxton, Frank p. At this time there were exactly 10, Marines on Guadalcanal Frank, pp. Goettge was one of the first killed.
Only three made it back to the Lunga Point perimeter. Seven Japanese were killed in the skirmish. After this engagement the Japanese naval personnel relocated deeper into the hills in the interior of the island. The Ichiki regiment was named after its commanding officer and was part of the 7th Division from Hokkaido.
The Aoba regiment, from the 2nd Division , took its name from Aoba Castle in Sendai , because most of the soldiers in the regiment were from Miyagi Prefecture Rottman, Japanese Army , p. Ichiki's regiment had been assigned to invade and occupy Midway , but were on their way back to Japan after the invasion was cancelled following the Japanese defeat in the Battle of Midway.
Ichiki's regiment was subsequently loaded on ships for transport elsewhere but were rerouted to Truk after the Allied landings on Guadalcanal. Robert Leckie, who was at Guadalcanal, remembers the events of the Battle of the Tenaru in his book Helmet for My Pillow , "Everyone had forgotten the fight and was watching the carnage, when shouting swept up the line.
A group of Japanese dashed along the opposite river edge, racing in our direction. Their appearance so surprised everyone that there were no shots. World War II Database. An unknown, but "large" number of the 5th Yokosuka troops were killed in the sinking of their transport ship. Halsey paid tribute to Australian Coastwatchers: Behind Enemy Lines: The term "rat transportation" was used because, like a rat, the Japanese ships were active at night.
The 35th Infantry Brigade, from the 18th Division , contained 3, troops and was centered on the th Infantry Regiment with various attached supporting units Alexander, p. The Marine defenders that finally defeated Kokusho's charge were most likely from the 11th Marines with assistance from the 1st Pioneer Battalion Smith, p. Navy sailors were killed when the Higgins boat carrying them from Tulagi to Aola Bay on Guadalcanal was lost.
One of the Japanese killed in the raid was "Ishimoto", a Japanese intelligence agent and interpreter who had worked in the Solomon Islands area prior to the war and was alleged to have participated in the murder of two Catholic priests and two nuns at Tasimboko on 3 September The Mysterious Mr. Since not all of the Task Force 64 warships were available, Scott's force was designated as Task Group Tobin in Farenholt.
The 16th was from the 2nd Division and the th from the 38th Division. Raizo Tanaka commanded Destroyer Squadron 2 which was part of the battleship's screen. The Japanese troops delivered to Guadalcanal during this time comprised the entire 2nd Sendai Infantry Division, two battalions from the 38th Infantry Division, and various artillery, tank, engineer, and other support units.
Kawaguchi's forces also included what remained of the 3rd Battalion, th Infantry Regiment, which was originally part of the 35th Infantry Brigade commanded by Kawaguchi during the Battle of Edson's Ridge. Hyakutake sent Colonel Masanobu Tsuji , a member of his staff, to monitor the 2nd Division's progress along the trail and to report to him on whether the attack could begin on 22 October as scheduled.
Masanobu Tsuji has been identified by some historians as the most likely culprit behind the Bataan death march. The Marines lost 2 killed in the action. Japanese infantry losses are not recorded but were, according to Frank, "unquestionably severe. Only 17 of the 44 members of the 1st Independent Tank Company survived the battle. The th became the first Army unit to engage in combat in the war and was later awarded the Presidential Unit Citation.
Silver Star medals were awarded to Sgt. Norman Greber of Ohio, Pvt. Don Reno of Texas, Pvt. Jack Bando of Oregon, Pvt. Stan Ralph of New York, and Cpl. Michael Randall of New York for their actions during the battle. Jersey states that the troops landed were from the 2nd Company, th Infantry commanded by 1st Lt Tamotsu Shinno plus the 6th Battery, 28th Mountain Artillery Regiment with the two guns.
The Aola construction units moved to Koli Point where they successfully built an auxiliary airfield beginning on 3 December Miller, p. Decision at Sea , p. Decision at Sea , pp. The American reinforcements totaled 5, men and included the 1st Marine Aviation Engineer Battalion, replacements for ground and air units, the 4th Marine Replacement Battalion, two battalions of the U.
Army's nd Infantry Regiment, and ammunition and supplies. Fred Espenak , Phases of the Moon: The American air sorties were possible due to a supply of gallon drums of octane gas that was hidden in a secluded area under the jungle canopy by Cub-1 sailor, August Martello.
During the conference with Sugiyama and Nagano, the Emperor asked Nagano, "Why was it that it took the Americans just a few days to build an air base and the Japanese more than a month or so? Nagano apologized and replied that the Americans had used machines while the Japanese had to rely on manpower. Toland, p. The Americal Division infantry regiments were National Guard units.
The th was from North Dakota , the nd from Massachusetts , and the nd from Illinois. The th had previously been part of the 37th Infantry Division. During its time on Guadalcanal, the 1st Marine Division suffered killed, 31 missing, 1, injured, and 8, who contracted some type of disease, mainly malaria.
The 2nd Marine Regiment had arrived at Guadalcanal with most of the 1st Marine Division, but remained behind to rejoin its parent unit, the 2nd Marine Division. The 2nd Marine Division's headquarters units, the 6th Marine Regiment, and various Marine weapons and support units also arrived on 4 and 6 January.
The total number of Marines on Guadalcanal and Tulagi on 6 January was 18, After unloading their cargo, the U. Japan Times. Archived from the original on 29 May Retrieved 26 November P; Robin Cross; Charles Messenger . In Dennis Cowe. World War II.
Dorling Kindersley. Toll The Conquering Tide. Guadalcanal Diary. New York: Modern Library, Alexander, Joseph H. Edson's Raiders: Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, Charleston, SC: Arcadia, Bergerud, Eric M. Touched with Fire: The Land War in the South Pacific.
Penguin Books, Alone on Guadalcanal: A Coastwatcher's Story. Fighting for Life: The Free Press. Crenshaw, Russell Sydnor. South Pacific Destroyer: Death of a Navy: Devin-Adair Co. In Dean, Peter. Australia In the Shadow of War. Cambridge University Press. Dull, Paul S. The Amphibians Came to Conquer: Washington, DC: Department of the Navy.
Although an apparent tactical victory for the Japanese in terms of ships sunk and damaged, the loss by the Japanese of many irreplaceable, veteran aircrews provided a long-term strategic advantage for the Allies, whose aircrew losses in the battle were relatively low. The Japanese aircraft assigned to Guadalcanal were to come from the 26th Air Flotilla, then located at bases in the Central Pacific Bullard, p. Archerfield Radio Station.
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Mikawa's decision not to attempt to destroy the Allied transport ships when he had the opportunity proved to be a crucial strategic mistake. Battle of Rennell Island.