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The Caciques had homes with dirt floors and no partitions between families, but did have wooden platforms or hammocks to sleep on. The overall rate of crime is low in Puerto Rico. Motorcycles will have the same paint, but with new blue LED lights on the back and front. It once happened that I myself witnessed their grilling of four or five local leaders in this fashion. Dated June 19 ,

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Families that retained their assets under U. The economic changes of the s produced an expanded middle class of government employees, administrators, and white-collar workers and an industrial working class replaced the rural one. Symbols of Social Stratification.

A "good" family and education are considered more important than wealth, but class distinctions increasingly are based on the ability to purchase and consume certain goods and commodities such as cars, electronic media, clothes, and travel. A doorway painted to represent the flag used in the Lares Insurrection. The official head of state is the president of the United States even though Puerto Ricans can not vote in presidential elections.

A local governor is elected every four years through universal suffrage. An elected resident commissioner represents the island in the U. Congress but has no vote. Puerto Rico has its own constitution. A bicameral legislature is elected every four years. The Senate is composed of two senators from each of eight senatorial districts and eleven senators at large; the House of Representatives consists of eleven representatives at large and one each from forty representative districts.

Minority party representation is guaranteed in both chambers regardless of election returns. Leadership and Political Officials. Political parties are based on the three traditional positions on status: The PNP emerged in , succeeding an old pro-statehood party. Its popularity peaked in but has decreased.

However, the PIP plays an important opposition role. Puerto Ricans vote politicians in and out for their governing abilities rather than their position on status. Concerns about the economy and the quality of life predominate. Several plebiscites have been held to allow residents to exercise their right to self-determination by expressing their status preference.

However, the United States has not honored any plebiscite results. Social Problems and Control. The unified court system is administered by the island's Supreme Court, which is appointed by the governor. But Puerto Rico is also subject to federal law and constitutes a district within the U. Legal practice incorporates elements from Anglo-American common law and the continental civil code law inherited from Spain.

There is no "customary" law.

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The island has its own police force, though the FBI also exercises jurisdiction. The correctional system has been plagued by overpopulation, lack of rehabilitation programs, poor physical facilities, undertrained correctional officers, and violent inmate gangs. Criminality is a major problem.

Some attribute it to the flight of Cuba's organized crime, which shifted operations to Puerto Rico after Others blame modernization and the alleged deterioration of traditional values. Many crimes are committed by drug addicts. Drug addiction has also brought the spread of AIDS.

The island is fully integrated into the U. Puerto Ricans serve in the U. There is also a local national guard. Many residents object to U. It has faced resistance and civil disobedience from many Puerto Ricans. Ongoing economic difficulties have produced high rates of unemployment. Puerto Rico receives federal aid but does not get equal coverage or qualify for most welfare programs.

The local government is the main welfare provider. Although it has managed to sustain a relatively high standard of living, the cost of living is steep and Puerto Ricans accumulate high levels of debt. However, Puerto Rico's achievements in reducing mortality, increasing literacy, improving medical services, and raising life expectancy have placed it on a par with many U.

The list of organizations and associations in Puerto Rico is vast, since the number and kind of them there parallel those found in any state of the U. Division of Labor by Gender. Gender relations have become increasingly egalitarian. When the island had a subsistence lifestyle, women were important economic producers in rural households and outside the home.

The ideal of the home-tending housewife has been honored among the middle and upper classes but has become impractical. In an ideal male world, women are expected to do the double duty of workplace and household labor, but this is changing because of the need to maintain double-salary households.

The Relative Status of Women and Men. There is a long-standing tradition of women being active in public life as intellectuals, writers, activists, politicians, and professionals. When women's suffrage was approved in , Puerto Rico elected the first woman legislator in the Western Hemisphere.

Puerto Ricans consider family life a core cultural value; family and kin are viewed as the most enduring and reliable support network. Despite a high divorce rate and an increase in serial monogamy, most people prefer marriage to living together, although female virginity is not as important as it was in the past.

Today courting is based on group or individual dating rather than chaperoned outings. Wedding ceremonies may be religious or secular but preferably include receptions for relatives and friends. Although remaining single is increasingly acceptable, marriage is an important marker of adulthood.

The nuclear family is prevalent, but relatives socialize often. Having children is preferable to childlessness, but it is increasingly the couple's choice. Working spouses who share household chores are becoming common, but socializing children is still predominantly a female role even among family-oriented men.

Male authority is invoked and appealed to, but women's authority over many domains and activities is recognized. Relatives are expected to support each other materially and emotionally. Support is legally prescribed and required along descent, ascent, and collateral lines.

Kinship is bilateral, and people commonly use both the father's and the mother's family name as surnames. Civil law requires that a third of an estate must be bequeathed equally among all the legal heirs. Another third may be used to improve an heir's lot, and the last third may be disposed of freely by the testator. The estate of a person who dies without a will is divided equally among all the legal heirs.

People try to rear children within the family. When the mother is unavailable, relatives are preferred to outsiders, and professional infant care providers are regarded with ambivalence. Puerto Ricans have adopted most modern child raising practices, such as separate beds and bedrooms, medical care, toys, and equipment.

From infancy, children are socialized toward family and communal participation. Traditionally, they are expected to learn through observation rather than instruction. Children must learn respeto , the most valued trait in the culture. Respeto refers to the belief that every person has an intrinsic dignity that must never be transgressed.

One must learn to respect others by learning to respect oneself. All other valued qualities, such as obedience, industriousness, and self-assurance, follow when a child internalizes respeto. Child Rearing and Education. Elementary education is legally mandated, but the youth of the population has strained the public education system.

Those who can afford it prefer private schooling, which better prepares children for college. Education is within the province of the family, since an educated person is not someone who has achieved "book learning" but a person who is respectful, cordial, courteous, polite, and "cultured.

Credentialism is on the rise, and a college degree is required for most positions and for upward mobility. The rates of high school and college graduation have increased in recent decades. The newly acquired importance of higher education sustains the university system, which includes the public University of Puerto Rico and the private Interamerican University, Sacred Heart College, and Catholic University.

All these institutions have multiple campuses. People have access to professional training in law, medicine, engineering, and other fields. Indirection is also an important strategy. People believe that directness is rude and use a variety of euphemisms and hedges to avoid it. Close friends are allowed directness but maintain the boundaries of respect.

Puerto Ricans prefer people who are publicly expressive but not excessively so. Friends customarily greet by kissing each other, and engaging in animated conversation is viewed as a social asset. Although social drinking is approved, drunkenness is not. Relajo is a joking A young woman holds a banner during a pro-statehood demonstration.

It is used to criticize others indirectly, convey problematic aspects of their behavior, stress absurdities, and impart potentially negative information. An estimated 30 percent of the population is now Protestant. All major denominations are represented, and there is a synagogue in San Juan but no mosque. Revivalism is quite popular.

The Catholic Church had much power under Spain, but Catholics are prone to a populistic kind of religion that is wary of the established church and its hierarchy. Many people are nonobservant, yet consider themselves devout because they pray, are faithful, treat others with compassion, and communicate directly with God. In the nineteenth century, European spiritualism became popular.

It is the most important alternative practice and coexists with established religions. Many people consider both forms equally legitimate and practice both. Spiritualist mediums are predominantly women who hold divinations and seances in their homes; many have become successful and even wealthy.

Both posit a spirit world, worship a hierarchy of guiding saints and deities from the sacred and secular worlds, and practice divination. Until the second half of the twentieth century, Puerto Rico suffered from the dire health conditions that are typical of poor, underdeveloped countries. Tropical diseases and parasites contributed to high mortality rates and low life expectancy.

Progress in health care has been dramatic, and the island now has modern medical facilities. Mortality rates and life expectancy have improved, and many diseases have been eradicated. People celebrate both United States and Puerto Rican holidays and feast days.

Easter Thursday and Friday are observed. Cities and town celebrate the patron saint's feast day, usually with carnivals, processions, masses, dances, and concerts. These celebrations are local, except for the eve of the island's patron saint, Saint John 23 June. The government sponsors civic and military parades for political holidays such as the Fourth of July and Constitution Day.

Christmas, New Year's Eve, and Three Kings are the high points of a holiday party season that extends from mid-December to mid-January. Easter brings religious processions. Support for the Arts. The arts are important as expressions of cultural nationalism. Although the institute has been criticized for fostering an essentialistic notion of national identity and favoring "high" culture, it has been instrumental in recovering the artistic past and fostering new arts production.

Local artists have access to support from U. Universities and colleges are also sources of work, support, and facilities. There are museums in Ponce and San Juan and art galleries all over the island. A performing arts center in Santurce has facilities for theater, concerts, opera, and dance.

Literary production is diverse, locally valued, and internationally acknowledged. Puerto Rican authors work in all genres and styles. Graphic arts production is diverse and prolific. Francisco Oller's impressionist work hangs in Paris museums. Twentieth century artists have been particularly successful in print media. Music ranges from popular and folk genres to classical works.

Salsa, the island's most recent contribution to world music, is rooted in African rhythms. Puerto Rico has classical composers and performers and has been the site of the international Casals Festival since the s. There are established ballet companies and groups that perform modern, folk, and jazz dance. Efforts to establish film production companies have floundered.

Most social and physical science research is conducted in institutions of higher learning. The social sciences have been instrumental in documenting and analyzing Puerto Rican society and culture. Because of its uniqueness, Puerto Rico is among the most intensely researched places in the world. Kicking Off the Bootstraps: A Colonial Experiment , Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in the Caribbean , El Libro de Puerto Rico , Historia cultural de Puerto Rico, , Pedreira's Interpretation of Puerto Rican Culture , Essays on Puerto Rican Identity , Essays on Caribbean Culture , Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans: Studies in History and Society , Puerto Rico and the USA , Worker in the Cane: A Puerto Rican Life History, Culture, Politics, and Identity , A History of Education in Puerto Rico , The Worlds of Puerto Ricans , The People of Puerto Rico: A Study in Social Anthropology , The Trials of the Oldest Colony in the World , A Documentary History , Culture Name Puerto Rican.

History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Old San Juan is a world-class example of Spanish urban architecture adapted to a tropical environment. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. The government holds portions and there are protected nature reserves. Major exports include chemicals and chemical products, food, and machinery.

Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Social Welfare and Change Programs Ongoing economic difficulties have produced high rates of unemployment. Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations The list of organizations and associations in Puerto Rico is vast, since the number and kind of them there parallel those found in any state of the U.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Medicine and Health Care Until the second half of the twentieth century, Puerto Rico suffered from the dire health conditions that are typical of poor, underdeveloped countries. The Arts and Humanities Support for the Arts. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences Most social and physical science research is conducted in institutions of higher learning.

Bibliography Berman Santana, Deborah. Constructing a Colonial People , Caribbean Transformations , This is a great article. Can I please know when this was published so I can cite it as a reference? This website helped me to learn about my culture and it helped me to do my project!! This Site was so helpful.

I can use this info for 2 projects. If Any of my friends need info on Puerto Rico I'll totally send them here. This was very informative about the Puerto Rican Culture and helped me out very much with my project that I am doing right now. Thanks to all the staff that made this great website. Also, can anyone direct me to a website that has the history of all sorts of foods, for future uses.

This site is great! It has a lot of facts about our lovely Island Puerto Rico and it's history! This website was so correct on how I was raised and just adds to my beleif in my people and how prided we are and what we can become as a people. I pray that all of us can raise our children to raise there children with the upmost pride and respect that was demanded by our people.

Thank-you so much for this informative website. I will tell my friends about this website. I found this sight extremely helpful with my research paper. I thank you very much. Could I get the information to cite it as a reference? Thank you for this site, it was very informative and helpful with a project for school!

That gave me all the information I need for my project in Spanish! Thank you, it was really helpful. This is a very informative overview of a complex and intriguing culture. Even though you by necessity had to broad brush aspects of all the islands many facets you still were able to project a 'personality' of Puerto Ricans.

With admiration and respeto. Hello, I am an editor with Ian Randle Publishers in Jamaica and I am requesting permission to use the photo of the young woman demonstrating, under the section "Etiquette". The photo would be used on the cover of one of our forthcoming titles, "Governance in the Non-independent Caribbean: Challenges and Opportunities in the Twenty-First Century".

Please let me know at your earliest convenience. Kindest regards, Kaci Hamilton. I love this article It's nice to learn more about my culture of where I come from and who I am. I hope to read more articles about my culture. This article was very good It made me have pride and love my culture more It helped for my research project at school.

This article does some justice to the Nation of Puerto Rico P. I just need you to revise the Dialect Statement as I find it not correct, as a matter of fact I find it offensive to all Boricuas who have completed education beyond high school. We learn Castilian Spanish at all levels within the education system, of course we use vulgar regionalist terms as transmitted from the Taino Language and other external influences for day to day verbal communication but written we may call it business Castilian, as we do not use many absolute terms as spoken or written in Spain.

This accent is not unique to P. Lets talk about the slangs and accents within the USA. We have given our children in service of this great country the United States. We have paved the way for others in blood by giving our self and others in three worlds.

So I ask my readers what makes a US Citizen I think of my friends and brother who have lost their lives in those war! I know you guys are doing a great work in PR. But is there a way that you can help the situation going on at the port. Food is not moving due to a shortage in trucks driver and trucks.

Thank you for your service and we wish PR a fast recovery. I truly have fond memories. We have not heard from them since the hurricane started, Milagros Maestre is Diabetic, epileptic, and needs her medicine, Amanda has a thyroid condition and also needs medicine and her daughter has asthma! Please if someone has any news on them or knows about them you can contact me at anytime!!

I believe it's the best of the best, I was with Troop E d Cav. We kicked ass where we went specially when they pu Our tankers always gave all the units a run for their money and when we went to the gunnery range they always out shot every one Else. Me I was their mechanic the best there was,I came from an active duty unit. I was with the 2 Armor division Ft.

I was proud of what I did. Wish I could go back, It was fun while it lasted. I do not preach an imaginatio n to you but I am speaking to you in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ in the virtue of the vision of April 24th, As in Jeremiah 28, in 1 Kings 22, I was given t Don't let a church, don't let a man, whoever he is, seduce you!

I've been in active member of the State command since

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The government plan, released last Wednesday, is intended to replace the plan approved by the Washington-appointed fiscal control board last March and respond to the damage caused by hurricanes Irma and Maria. When used in connection with areas under U. There are twenty forest reserves, such as El Yunque Rain Forest and the Caribbean National Forest, which are under federal jurisdiction. Broadcasting in Puerto Rico is regulated by the U. The police patch changed to an image of a police officer saluting a family, near a road, with the view of the city and the mountains.

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  • Archived from the original on December 14,
  • Drug addiction has also brought the spread of AIDS.
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  • Retrieved October 1,
  • Find more about Puerto Rico at Wikipedia's sister projects.
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  • Its "hands-on" tactics for crowd control , the unit's primary mission, have been infamous among Puerto Ricans, most noticeably where physical control of large gatherings people is necessary to prevent disorder or to restore order.

Archived from the original on May 24, Constructing A Colonial People: Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Old San Juan is a world-class example of Spanish urban architecture adapted to a tropical environment.


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